GARRETT A. MORGAN BIOGRAPHY
Garrett A. Morgan was born in Paris, Kentucky on March 4, 1877 to Sidney and Elizabeth (Reed) Morgan. Garrett was the seventh child of eleven. Morgan was an African-American businessman and inventor whose curiosity and innovation led to the development of many useful products:
- Morgan’s first invention was a belt fastener for a sewing machine, which he designed while working for a clothing manufacturer.
- Driven and hard working, in 1907 Morgan opened his own sewing machine business and later a clothing manufacturing business.
- Morgan received a patent (#1,113,675) in 1914 for his “breathing device” which he also called a “safety helmet.” Today, this device is called a gas mask. Bravely, Morgan and his brother used the breathing device to rescue several workmen trapped in a toxic gas-filled waterworks tunnel 128 feet under Lake Erie. The City of Cleveland awarded the Morgan brothers a gold medal for their heroism.
- In 1920, Morgan moved into the newspaper business when he established the Cleveland Call newspaper to provide better news coverage of African-American affairs in Cleveland.
- After witnessing an accident involving a horse-pulled buggy and an automobile at a street intersection in 1923, Morgan designed a patented (#1,475,024) a traffic signal. The signal consisted of a tall post with movable arms that monitored and controlled traffic: it rotated and the arms moved up; it contained lights that flashed the words “stop” and “go”: it used batteries and electricity from overhead wires; and a set of bells signaled that the post was changing directions. Morgan sold the rights to his traffic signal patent to General Electric Company. Morgan was awarded a citation for his traffic signal by the United States government.
As word of Morgan’s life-saving inventions spread across North America and England, demand for these products grew. He was frequently invited to conventions and public exhibitions to demonstrate how his inventions worked. Garrett Augustus Morgan died on August 27, 1963, at the age of 86. His life was long and full, and his creative energies have given us a marvelous and lasting legacy.
DID YOU KNOW?
- July 22, 1715 - The postal system was established.
- July 7, 1838 - Congress passed a bill making every railroad a postal route.
- August 10, 1865 - Baltimore became the first US city with an electric railway in regular operation.
- July 29, 1870 - The first asphalt road was completed.
- October 9, 1870 - Grand Central Station opened in New York City.
- August 1, 1873 - San Francisco received its first cable car.
- November 13, 1903 - Ford Motor Company was formed.
- July 28, 1912 - GMC Truck was formed.
- August 5, 1914 - The first traffic light went up in Cleveland, OH.
- August 14, 1914 - The Panama Canal opened.
- August 27, 1927 - First production of the Yellow Coach in Chicago.
- November 13, 1927 - The Holland Tunnel opened.
- December 23, 1946 - NYCTA carried a record 8.8 million passengers.
SHADOW DAY ACTIVITIES IN YOUR COMMUNITY
BEHIND THE SCENES
Hold a "Behind the Scenes Look" at your local Office of Emergency Management Center, and learn about its ties to the safety of transit agency staff and consumers.
CAREER SHOWCASE DAY
Conduct a career showcase day for high school and/or college students that would allow them to visit the offices of consultants, contractors, manufacturers, suppliers, vendors, agencies, and related businesses to highlight various jobs and tasks that factor into the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a transportation system.
Have students create a new logo, develop a marketing plan for a new transportation service, or solicit student proposals on a public policy question related to transportation. Offer a prize or scholarship to the winner.
Bring students into a one day seminar that allows them to shadow transportation agency department staff. Provide breakfast and lunch, and begin the day with an introduction and welcome by the CEO or General Manager. Students will shadow staff in various departments, and the day will end with a presentation by the students describing what they learned from and about the organization.
TRANSPORTATION ADVOCACY DAY
Take a group of students to the state capitol and meet with officials and policymakers to talk about the importance of transportation.
TRANSPORTATION CAREER DAY
Set up and conduct forums that discuss paths to rewarding careers in the transportation industry with students who are planning to attend college. Have industry personnel talk about their career paths and the needed skills for their roles.
TRANSPORTATION VIDEO CONTEST
Break the students into small groups and assign each group a transportation mode. Have each group research safety or general information about each mode, and then create a short 2-3 minute fun, interactive video.
OTHER SHORT-TERM ACTIVITIES
- Introduce safety and rescue techniques for various modes of transportation.
- Create a collage of different types of jobs in transportation.
- Tour the local transit authority, airport, car manufacturer, or dispatch and command center.
- Learn about bike safety.
- Hold a coloring drawing and coloring contest of various types of transportation (bikes, cars, planes, etc.).
- Have students pick a transportation mode and create a safety video for younger students.
- Have students create a transportation Web page.
- Hold a "Career Day" and have industry professionals come to class and talk to students about the exciting things involved in their career.
ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATION FOR COMTO CHAPTERS
- Be sure to get feedback from students
- Include real-life transportation career options
- Internships are hard to find; consider holding an "internship fair" as part of your activities
- Budget for Garrett Morgan Day activities
- Partner with local businesses, agencies, and educators to conduct activities
- Members should plan to volunteer their time
- Be sure to contact local schools K-12, as well as colleges and universities, to educate them about the Garrett Morgan Day program
Do you have suggestions to add to the toolkit? Share them with COMTO at email@example.com!